A number of authors have discussed the need for organizations to link development to the business systems. The confluence of these processes determines the relative effectiveness of any one development activity. Avolio posits that Training should not be conceived of as a discrete program, but rather as an organizational intervention supported by other interventions over time. Training must have a clear, central purpose that will affect how people perform their roles, ideally, the best training programs create a sense of identification with the core values and beliefs they are attempting to transfer to participants.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions i. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors dissonancesomething must change to eliminate the dissonance.
In the case of a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior, it is most likely that the attitude will change to accommodate the behavior. Two factors affect the strength of the dissonance: There are three ways to eliminate dissonance: Dissonance occurs most often in situations where an individual must choose between two incompatible beliefs or actions.
The greatest dissonance is created when the two alternatives are equally attractive. Furthermore, attitude change is more likely in the direction of less incentive since this results in lower dissonance.
In this respect, dissonance theory is contradictory to most behavioral theories which would predict greater attitude change with increased incentive i. Dissonance theory applies to all situations involving attitude formation and change.
It is especially relevant to decision-making and problem-solving. Consider someone who buys an expensive car but discovers that it is not comfortable on long drives. Dissonance exists between their beliefs that they have bought a good car and that a good car should be comfortable.
Dissonance could be eliminated by deciding that it does not matter since the car is mainly used for short trips reducing the importance of the dissonant belief or focusing on the cars strengths such as safety, appearance, handling thereby adding more consonant beliefs.
The dissonance could also be eliminated by getting rid of the car, but this behavior is a lot harder to achieve than changing beliefs. Dissonance results when an individual must choose between attitudes and behaviors that are contradictory.
Dissonance can be eliminated by reducing the importance of the conflicting beliefs, acquiring new beliefs that change the balance, or removing the conflicting attitude or behavior.
Explorations in Cognitive Dissonance. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Cognitive Consquences of Forced Compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, Perspectives on Cognitive Dissonance.
The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so.
As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and student should engage in an active dialog i.
Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned. Bruner states that a theory of instruction should address four major aspects: Good methods for structuring knowledge should result in simplifying, generating new propositions, and increasing the manipulation of information.
In his more recent work, Bruner, has expanded his theoretical framework to encompass the social and cultural aspects of learning as well as the practice of law.Coca-Cola has been founded since in Atlanta, United State. The Coca-Cola Company has produced more than 10 billion gallons of syrup. Bu.
An exploration of theories of action in leadership development: a case study. [Scott J Allen] -- The central purpose of the present study was to examine how academic notions of leadership development compare and contrast with the theory of action that guides corporate leadership development.
Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning. The work of Chris Argyris () has influenced thinking about the relationship of people and organizations, organizational learning and action research.
Future Trends in Leadership Development By: Nick Petrie. Contents About the Author 3 Experts Consulted During 3 This Study About This Project 5 Executive Summary 5 Section 1–The Challenge of Our 7 Current Situation Section 2–Future Trends for 1o Leadership Development Types of Development Leadership Case Study • Inspires and Motivates Others to High Performance Possible Answers and Leadership Considerations Following are some of the possible answers and leadership considerations surrounding Sally’s leadership challenges.
The central purpose of the present study was to analyze the process and potential extensions of the user-focused theory of action approach as a tool to evaluate leadership development programming.