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Lecture 23 The Age of Ideologies 1: General Introduction It must.
Thus only is he fully conscious; thus only is he a partaker of morality -- of a just and moral social and political life. For Truth is the unity of the universal. The state is the Divine Idea as it exists on Earth. Hegel, The Philosophy of History When we review the intellectual history of the 19th century in panorama, we cannot help but be struck by the enormous profusion of ideologies that century managed to produce: Liberalism, conservatism, Marxism, Darwinism, Positivism, idealism, Hegelianism, socialism, Owenism, anarchism, communism, Romanticism and the list seems to go on and on.
I would suggest that the proliferation of these -isms, of these grandiose systems, was the product of an age in which intellectual life had become much more complex and intense.
And there are several reasons for this complexity and intensity. First, the area concerned was larger than ever. For instance, American and Russian thinkers were beginning to make important contributions. Historically, western intellectual life had been confined to the European Continent.
Now, it seemed, intellectual life had become more global. At the same time, European thinkers were becoming more aware of ancient thought.
This development has a great deal to do with the development of anthropology as well as Darwinian evolutionary theory and the geological discoveries of Charles Lyell Eastern thought began to pervade western ideas during the 19th century.
Many of the British Romantic poets were quite taken with eastern ideas as was the midth century German thinker Arthur Schopenhauerwhose ideas were to later influence Friedrich Nietzsche In general, new ideas and with them, a new vocabulary, entered into European intellectual discourse Second, science, which had been chiefly a novelty throughout the 18th century, now made new conquests.
This was especially so in the fields of geology, biology, botany and organic chemistry. The newest developments in the sciences were primarily in the physical and life sciences, all founded in the early part of the 19th century.
Another way of looking at science in the 19th century is to say that whereas the 17th and 18th centuries were keen on investigating Nature from the standpoint of what was inorganic and heavenly, the 19th century discovered and took a lively interest in what was organic, vital and living.
Third, machine production, the factory system and the cash nexus profoundly altered the social structure first of England and then, by the end of the century, throughout Europe and eventually the world.
This revolution in industry -- the Industrial Revolution -- gave man a new conception of power in relation to his physical environment see Lecture The Industrial Revolution was indeed revolutionary -- never before had the mode of production been so forcefully altered in such a short space of historical time.
The Industrial Revolution, furthermore, was not simply some backdrop to other, more important events. It was the event itself, and such an event profoundly transformed all men and women directly and immediately.
As Raymond Williams once remarked: The changes that we receive as record were experienced, in these years, on the senses; hunger, suffering, conflict, dislocation; hope, energy, vision, dedication.
The pattern of change was not background, as we may now be inclined to study it, it was, rather, the mould in which general experience was cast.Immanuel Kant (–) argued that the supreme principle of morality is a standard of rationality that he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI).
John Stuart Mill: An Introduction and Collection of Resources This page contains an organized collection of links to beginner friendly videos, podcasts and articles on John Stuart Mill.
To get started, simply choose a topic from the list below. A summary of Chapter 1: General Remarks in John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Utilitarianism and what it means.
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Philosophy of Sexuality. Among the many topics explored by the philosophy of sexuality are procreation, contraception, celibacy, marriage, adultery, casual sex.