How do cells obtain the energy they need to function? Cells obtain energy for their metabolic reactions from breaking down organic molecules with a high energy content.
Cellular respiration in algae, as in all organisms, is the process by which food molecules are metabolized to obtain chemical energy for the cell. Most algae are aerobic i. In eukaryotic cells that is, any cells or organisms that possess a clearly defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles the enzymes that catalyze the individual steps involved in respiration and energy conservation are located in highly organized rod-shaped compartments called mitochondria.
In microorganisms the enzymes occur as components of the cell membrane. A liver cell has about 1, mitochondria; large egg cells of some vertebrates have up toThe three processes of ATP production include glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
In eukaryotic cells the latter two processes occur within mitochondria.
Electrons that are passed through the electron transport chain ultimately generate free energy capable of driving the phosphorylation of ADP.
Main metabolic processes Biologists differ somewhat with respect to the names, descriptions, and the number of stages of cellular respiration. The overall process, however, can be distilled into three main metabolic stages or steps: Glycolysis Glycolysis which is also known as the glycolytic pathway or the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway is a sequence of 10 chemical reactions taking place in most cells that breaks down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate pyruvic acid molecules.
Use the following diagram to answer questions 20 and The diagram represents a cross section of a leaf. E. The largest amount of carbohydrates would be manufactured by structure. A. A. B. B. C. C. D. E. The largest amount of sunlight would enter the leaf through structure Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Quiz. AP Biology Essay Questions The following is a comprehensive list of essay questions that have been asked on past AP exams. The questions are organized according to units. Unit 4 (Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) Describe the similarities and differences between the biochemical pathways of. Start studying Cellular Respiration questions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Energy released during the breakdown of glucose and other organic fuel molecules from carbohydratesfatsand proteins during glycolysis is captured and stored in ATP. Pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis then enter the mitochondria, where they are each converted into a compound known as acetyl coenzyme A, which then enters the TCA cycle.
Some sources consider the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A as a distinct step, called pyruvate oxidation or the transition reaction, in the process of cellular respiration.
The generation of pyruvate through the process of glycolysis is the first step in fermentation. Tricarboxylic acid cycle The TCA cycle which is also known as the Krebs, or citric acidcycle plays a central role in the breakdown, or catabolismof organic fuel molecules.
The cycle is made up of eight steps catalyzed by eight different enzymes that produce energy at several different stages. These molecules go on to fuel the third stage of cellular respiration, whereas carbon dioxide, which is also produced by the TCA cycle, is released as a waste product.
The eight-step tricarboxylic acid cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation In the oxidative phosphorylation stage, each pair of hydrogen atoms removed from NADH and FADH2 provides a pair of electrons that—through the action of a series of iron -containing hemoproteins, the cytochromes —eventually reduces one atom of oxygen to form water.
In it was discovered that the transfer of one pair of electrons to oxygen results in the formation of three molecules of ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation is the major mechanism by which the large amounts of energy in foodstuffs are conserved and made available to the cell.
The series of steps by which electrons flow to oxygen permits a gradual lowering of the energy of the electrons. This part of the oxidative phosphorylation stage is sometimes called the electron transport chain. Some descriptions of cellular respiration that focus on the importance of the electron transport chain have changed the name of the oxidative phosphorylation stage to the electron transport chain.Cellular respiration is essential to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells since biochemical energy is produced to fuel many metabolic processes, such as biosynthesis, locomotion, transportation of molecules across membranes.
answers to the Part A and Part B–1 multiple-choice questions on the separate answer sheet.
Write your answers for the questions in Parts B–2, C, and D directly 15 In what way are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar? (1) They both occur in chloroplasts.
(2) They both require sunlight. LIVING ENVIRONMENT Tuesday. This activity was created by a Quia Web subscriber. Learn more about Quia: Create your own activities. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Practice Problems.
Biology Click here for excellent Cellular Respiration Questions with a Tutorial (Biology Project at the University of Arizona). Use the following Key to answer questions 1 - Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit 3 Practice Exam Biology A/Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Total Point Value: 70 points Section 1: Multiple Choice Directions: Choose the best answer for each question.
Each question is worth 2 points. 1. Which of . response questions that have been previously asked over cellular respiration.
These questions are available from the College Board and can be downloaded free of charge.