April 20, John The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
The anarchist Emma Goldmanwho was in Petrograd at the time of the rebellion, described in a retrospective account from how "the news in the Paris Press about the Kronstadt uprising two weeks before it happened had been stressed in the [official press] campaign against the sailors as proof positive that they had been tools of the Imperialist gang and that rebellion had actually been hatched in Paris.
It was too obvious that this yarn was used only to discredit the Kronstadters in the eyes of the workers. Avrich says this memorandum was probably written between January and early February by an agent of an exile opposition group called the National Centre in Finland.
Those debates started at the time of the rebellion. Because Leon Trotsky was in charge of the Red Army forces that suppressed the uprising, with the backing of Lenin, the question of whether the suppression was justified became a point of contention on the revolutionary left, in debates between anarchists and Leninist Marxists about the character of the Soviet state and Leninist politics, and more particularly in debates between anarchists and Trotsky and his followers.
It remains so to this day. On the pro-Leninist side of those debates, the memorandum published by Avrich is treated as a "smoking gun" showing foreign and counter-revolutionary conspiracy behind the rebellion, for example in an article from by a Trotskyist writer, Abbie Bakan.
Bakan says "[t]he document includes remarkably detailed information about the resources, personnel, arms and plans of the Kronstadt rebellion. It also details plans regarding White army and French government support for the Kronstadt sailors' March rebellion.
Avrich reaches a different conclusion as to the meaning of the "Memorandum": The report notes that "among the sailors, numerous and unmistakable signs of mass dissatisfaction with the existing order can be noticed.
Nothing has come to light to show that the Secret Memorandum was ever put into practice or that any links had existed between the emigres and the sailors before the revolt. On the contrary, the rising bore the earmarks of spontaneity Had there been a prearranged plan, surely the sailors would have waited a few weeks longer for the ice to melt The rebels, moreover, allowed Kalinin a leading Communist to return to Petrograd, though he would have made a valuable hostage.
Further, no attempt was made to take the offensive Significant too, is the large number of Communists who took part in the movement.
The Sailors needed no outside encouragement to raise the banner of insurrection Kronstadt was clearly ripe for a rebellion. What set it off was not the machination of emigre conspirators and foreign intelligence agents but the wave of peasant risings throughout the country and the labour disturbances in neighboring Petrograd.
And as the revolt unfolded, it followed the pattern of earlier outbursts against the central government from through the Civil War. Firstly, they failed to deliver aid to the rebels or to get French aid to them.
|Lubitz' Leon Trotsky Bibliography: Chapter 1 - A part of Lubitz' TrotskyanaNet||Bibliography of texts, internal bulletins, and addresses of "Contre le Courant" ["Against the Current"]|
|Contents of Chapter 1||Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution: Cambridge University Press,|
|Chapter 1: Generalities and bibliography||Military Revolution by Geoffrey Parker Military Revolution can be defined as the fundamental change in military policies and tactics, which changed the government. Michael Roberts introduced the notion in the s focusing on Sweden between the years and|
|Military Revolution - Wikipedia||In The Military Revolution Parker analyses the key innovations involved.|
|Jesus on Parade -- Lectionary Reflection for Palm Sunday||Organizations[ edit ] Historians have formed scores of scholarly organizations, which typically hold annual conferences where scholarly papers are presented, and which publish scholarly journals. In addition, every state and many localities have their own historical societies, focused on their own histories and sources.|
Secondly, Professor Grimm, the chief agent of the National Centre in Helsingfors and General Wrangel's official representative in Finland, stated to a colleague after the revolt had been crushed that if a new outbreak should occur then their group must not be caught unaware again.
Avrich also notes that the revolt "caught the emigres off balance" and that "nothing First, Krivitsky asked, "Is the Soviet Government a fascist government? From Kronstadt during the Bolshevik Revolution inthe sailors of the Baltic Fleet had steamed their cruisers to aid the Communists in capturing Petrograd.
Their aid had been decisive They were the first Communists to realize their mistake and the first to try to correct it.
When they saw that Communism meant terror and tyranny, they called for the overthrow of the Communist Government and for a time imperiled it.Well before the Industrial Revolution, Europe developed the superior military potential and expertise that enabled her to dominate the world for the next two centuries.
11 “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. 12 The hired hand, who is not the shepherd and does not own the sheep, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and runs away—and the wolf snatches them and scatters them.
13 The hired hand runs away because a hired hand does not care for the sheep.
14 I am the good shepherd. Christopher Bollyn is a well-travelled writer and an investigative journalist who has done extensive research into the events of September 11, , the conflict in Middle-East and the health effects caused by exposure to depleted uranium.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Lubitz' Leon Trotsky Bibliography, an international reference tool listing some books, articles, dissertations etc.
about Trotsky, Trotskyism and Trotskists;LLTB. The Military Revolution - 1: Sebastian Vrancx () Soldiers plunder a farm Roberts' thesis has been questioned and criticized.
It has also been expanded and adapted, particularly by Geoffrey Parker who also sees military change as crucial in the rise of the West.