Brigades could be subdivided into smaller units called zvenos links for carrying out some or all of their tasks. Kolkhoz conditions in the Stalin period[ edit ] See also:
Useful Terminology Much of the terminology of cryptography can be linked back to the time when only written messages were being encrypted and the same terminology is still used regardless of whether it is being applied to a written message or a stream of binary code between two computers.
CODE An unvarying rule for replacing a piece of information with another object, not necessarily of the same sort e. Ciphers, as in the case of codes, also replace a piece of information an element of the plaintext that may consist of a letter or word or string of symbols with another object. The difference is that the replacement is made according to a rule defined by a secret key known only to the transmitter and legitimate receiver s in the expectation that an outsider, ignorant of the key, will not be able to undo the replacement and retrieve the original plaintext.
Early Cryptographic Systems It seems reasonable to assume that people have tried to conceal information in written form since writing was developed and examples survive in stone inscriptions and papyruses showing that many ancient civilisations including the Egyptians, Hebrews and Assyrians all developed cryptographic systems.
The first recorded use of cryptography for correspondence was by the Spartans who as early as BC employed a cipher device called a "scytale" to send secret communications between military commanders.
The scytale consisted of a tapered baton around which was wrapped a piece of parchment inscribed with the message. Once unwrapped the parchment appeared to contain an incomprehensible set of letters, however when wrapped around another baton of identical size the original text appears.
The Greeks were therefore the inventors of the first transposition cipher and in the fourth century BC the earliest treatise on the subject was written by a Greek, Aeneas Tacticus, as part of a work entitled On the Defence of Fortifications.
Another Greek, Polybius later devised a means of encoding letters into pairs of symbols using a device known as the Polybius checkerboard which contains many elements common to later encryption systems. In addition to the Greeks there are similar examples of primitive substitution or transposition ciphers in use by other civilisations including the Romans.
The Polybius checkerboard consists of a five by five grid containing all the letters of the alphabet. Each letter is converted into two numbers, the first is the row in which the letter can be found and the second is the column.
Hence the letter A becomes 11, the letter B 12 and so forth. The Arabs were the first people to clearly understand the principles of cryptography and to elucidate the beginning of cryptanalysis.
They devised and used both substitution and transposition ciphers and discovered the use of letter frequency distributions in cryptanalysis. He also gave explicit instructions on how to cryptanalyze ciphertext using letter frequency counts including examples illustrating the technique.
European cryptography dates from the Middle Ages during which it was developed by the Papal and Italian city states. The earliest ciphers involved only vowel substitution leaving the consonants unchanged. Circa the first European manual on cryptography, consisting of a compilation of ciphers, was produced by Gabriele de Lavinde of Parma, who served Pope Clement VII.
This manual contains a set of keys for correspondents and uses symbols for letters and nulls with several two character code equivalents for words and names. The first brief code vocabularies, called nomenclators, were expanded gradually and for several centuries were the mainstay of diplomatic communications for nearly all European governments.
By large codes were in common use for diplomatic communications and cipher systems had become a rarity for this application however cipher systems prevailed for military communications except for high-command communications because of the difficulty of protecting codebooks from capture or compromise.
While the Union cryptanalysts solved most of the intercepted Confederate ciphers, the Confederacy in desperation, sometimes published Union ciphers in newspapers, appealing for help from readers in cryptanalysing them.
Cryptography During The Two World Wars During the first world war both sides employed cipher systems almost exclusively for tactical communications while code systems were still used mainly for high-command and diplomatic communications.
Although field cipher systems such as the U.Welcome to the American Perspectives Volume I eText Website for Houston Community College.
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