Revered in ancient times as "Spartans of the Lower Mississippi Valley," the first contact with Europeans was with Hernando de Soto in Living in sophisticated town sites, the Chickasaws possessed a highly developed ruling system complete with laws and religion. They conducted a successful trade business with other tribes and with the French and English, and lived largely an agrarian lifestyle, but were quick to go to battle if necessary. They allied with the English during the French and Indian War.
Etymology[ edit ] The name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swantonbelonged to a Chickasaw leader. The Chickasaw are labelled as "Chickisa".
The origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain. Twentieth-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into as distinct peoples in Tennessee and chickasaw culture 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the Lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years.
The Chickasaw migrated into Mississippi.
The Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries. In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom and settled into the upper Yazoo and Pearl River valleys in Mississippi.
Historians Arrell Gibson and anthropology John R. It is also sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it. The mound was built about years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups.
The second leg of the de Soto Expedition, from Apalachee to the Chicaza The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most likely near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the American Indians attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying it.
The Spanish moved on quickly. When the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped. Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were often at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, The 19th-century historian Horatio Cushman wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws ever engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies.
Tribal lands[ edit ] Ina general appraisal of the tribe and its territorial bounds was made by Abraham Bishop of New Haven, who wrote: The Chickasaws are a nation of Indians who inhabit the country on the east side of the Mississippi, on the head branches of the Tombeckbe sicMobille and Yazoo rivers.
Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably well watered from springs, and a pretty good soil. They have seven towns, and their number of fighting men is estimated at President and Henry Knox first U.
Secretary of War proposed the cultural transformation of Native Americans. He formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process, and Thomas Jefferson continued it. He and other agents lived among the Indians to teach them, through example and instruction, how to live like whites.
In the 19th century, the Chickasaw increasingly adopted European-American practices, as they established schools, adopted yeoman farming practices, converted to Christianity, and built homes in styles like their European-American neighbors. Article 11 of that treaty states: Treaty of [ edit ] Inleaders of the Chickasaw signed a treaty ceding all claims to land north of the southern border of Tennessee.Welcome to version of the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture.
Explore hundreds of Entries, Images and Photo Galleries that cover the history and culture of the great Volunteer State! Jun 11, · Ancient Mississippian culture site (14,ooo years ago +/-) with large intact mound. Also nearby Memphis, Tennessee. Reviewed June 11, If you happen upon Chickasaw Heritage Park (formerly DeSoto Park) you might not think much about it.
/5(4). The Cherokee lands in Tennessee were eventually shown by 20th century historians to include a vast expanse of the Chickasaw territory that the British gave to the Cherokees in , but the Cherokees didn’t dare step into. The history of Memphis, Tennessee and its area began many thousands of years ago with succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples.
In the first millennium, it was settled by the Mississippian Culture. The Chickasaw Indian tribe emerged about the 17th century, or migrated into the area.
The historic homeland of the Chickasaw is found in north Mississippi and western Tennessee. Though a smaller tribe than the Choctaw, the Chickasaw were known as fierce warriors and still consider themselves as "unconquered and unconquerable.".
The history of the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma began in when tribal leaders signed the Treaty of Old Town, ceding their lands in western Kentucky and Tennessee.