Candide was written by Voltaire and translated by John Butt in This era was a time of ideas about science and philosophy.
The Philosopher as Critic and Public Activist Voltaire only began to identify himself with philosophy and the philosophe identity Views of war in voltaires candide or optimism middle age. His work Lettres philosophiques, published in when he was forty years old, was the key turning point in this transformation.
Before this date, Voltaire's life in no way pointed him toward the philosophical destiny that he was later to assume. His early orientation toward literature and libertine sociability, however, shaped his philosophical identity in crucial ways.
· Candide; or Optimism translated from the German of DoctorRalph with the additions which were found in the Doctor=s pocket when he died at Minden1 in the Year of our Lord War () between the Prussians and the French, a conflict which had the usual effects ofinitiativeblog.com “Optimism," said Cacambo, "What is that?" "Alas!" replied Candide, "It is the obstinacy of maintaining that everything is best when it is worst.”initiativeblog.com · A brief summary of the themes of Voltaire’s Candide Candide’s experience in war and army contradict teaching of Pangloss; Like Pangloss’s unqualified optimism, Martin’s unqualified initiativeblog.com
In its fusion of traditional French aristocratic pedigree with the new wealth and power of royal bureaucratic administration, the d'Arouet family was representative of elite society in France during the reign of Louis XIV. First as a law student, then as a lawyer's apprentice, and finally as a secretary to a French diplomat, Voltaire attempted to fulfill his father's wishes.
But in each case, he ended up abandoning his posts, sometimes amidst scandal. Escaping from the burdens of these public obligations, Voltaire would retreat into the libertine sociability of Paris.
It was here in the s, during the culturally vibrant period of the Regency government between the reigns of Louis XIV and XV —that Voltaire established one dimension of his identity.
His wit and congeniality were legendary even as a youth, so he had few difficulties establishing himself as a popular figure in Regency literary circles. He also learned how to play the patronage game so important to those with writerly ambitions.
Thanks, therefore, to some artfully composed writings, a couple of well-made contacts, more than a few bon mots, and a little successful investing, especially during John Law's Mississippi Bubble fiasco, Voltaire was able to establish himself as an independent man of letters in Paris.
His literary debut occurred in with the publication of his Oedipe, a reworking of the ancient tragedy that evoked the French classicism of Racine and Corneille.
The play was first performed at the home of the Duchesse du Maine at Sceaux, a sign of Voltaire's quick ascent to the very pinnacle of elite literary society. Its published title page also announced the new pen name that Voltaire would ever after deploy.
During the Regency, Voltaire circulated widely in elite circles such as those that congregated at Sceaux, but he also cultivated more illicit and libertine sociability as well.
Philosophy was also a part of this mix, and during the Regency the young Voltaire was especially shaped by his contacts with the English aristocrat, freethinker,and Jacobite Lord Bolingbroke. The chateau served as a reunion point for a wide range of intellectuals, and many believe that Voltaire was first introduced to natural philosophy generally, and to the work of Locke and the English Newtonians specifically, at Bolingbroke's estate.
It was certainly true that these ideas, especially in their more deistic and libertine configurations, were at the heart of Bolingbroke's identity. The occasion for his departure was an affair of honor. A very powerful aristocrat, the Duc de Rohan, accused Voltaire of defamation, and in the face of this charge the untitled writer chose to save face and avoid more serious prosecution by leaving the country indefinitely.
In the spring oftherefore, Voltaire left Paris for England. It was during his English period that Voltaire's transition into his mature philosophe identity began. Bolingbroke, whose address Voltaire left in Paris as his own forwarding address, was one conduit of influence.
In particular, Voltaire met through Bolingbroke Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, and John Gay, writers who were at that moment beginning to experiment with the use of literary forms such as the novel and theater in the creation of a new kind of critical public politics.
Swift's Gulliver's Travels, which appeared only months before Voltaire's arrival, is the most famous exemplar of this new fusion of writing with political criticism. Later the same year Bolingbroke also brought out the first issue of the Craftsman, a political journal that served as the public platform for his circle's Tory opposition to the Whig oligarchy in England.
The Craftsman helped to create English political journalism in the grand style, and for the next three years Voltaire moved in Bolingbroke's circle, absorbing the culture and sharing in the public political contestation that was percolating all around him.
Voltaire did not restrict himself to Bolingbroke's circle alone, however. After Bolingbroke, his primary contact in England was a merchant by the name of Everard Fawkener. Fawkener introduced Voltaire to a side of London life entirely different from that offered by Bolingbroke's circle of Tory intellectuals.
This included the Whig circles that Bolingbroke's group opposed. It also included figures such as Samuel Clarke and other self-proclaimed Newtonians. Voltaire did not meet Newton himself before Sir Isaac's death in March,but he did meet his sister—learning from her the famous myth of Newton's apple, which Voltaire would play a major role in making famous.
Voltaire also came to know the other Newtonians in Clarke's circle, and since he became proficient enough with English to write letters and even fiction in the language, it is very likely that he immersed himself in their writings as well.
Voltaire also visited Holland during these years, forming important contacts with Dutch journalists and publishers and meeting Willem 'sGravesande and other Dutch Newtonian savants.
Given his other activities, it is also likely that Voltaire frequented the coffeehouses of London even if no firm evidence survives confirming that he did.
It would not be surprising, therefore, to learn that Voltaire attended the Newtonian public lectures of John Theophilus Desaguliers or those of one of his rivals. Whatever the precise conduits, all of his encounters in England made Voltaire into a very knowledgeable student of English natural philosophy.
But he was also a different kind of writer and thinker. For one, these two sides of Voltaire's intellectual identity were forever intertwined, and he never experienced an absolute transformation from one into the other at any point in his life.
But the English years did trigger a transformation in him. · "Candide" is a French satire written by Voltaire in the 18th century. It follows the adventures of the young Candide as he leaves his sheltered paradise and travels the world, learning about suffering and initiativeblog.com://initiativeblog.com Candide begins the novel as a faithful student of Pangloss, but painful experience prompts him to reconsider his views.
Candide's disillusionment is gradual. As he sees more of life and the world, he becomes less and less convinced that suffering and evil exist as part of a larger divine initiativeblog.com://initiativeblog.com quotes from Candide: ‘I have wanted to kill myself a hundred times, but somehow I am still in love with life.
This ridiculous weakness is perhaps one.
Voltaire's brilliant satirical assault on what he saw as the naïvely optimistic philosophy of the Enlightenment, Candide, or Optimism is a dazzling picaresque novel, translated and edited by Theo Cuffe with an introduction by Michael Wood in Penguin initiativeblog.com://initiativeblog.com · Voltaire mainly wrote Candide as a repudiation of Leibniz’s philosophy of Providence and his optimism.
However, it can be argued that Candide was also a criticism of many aspects of his initiativeblog.comre attacks religious fanaticism of his time (the scene in which the starving Candide is asked by a Protestant pastor if he thought that the Pope was the Antichrist), the Seven Years’ War (the initiativeblog.com · Voltaire’s real life experiences are incorporated into Candide, and although hidden, these explain Voltaire’s attitude towards radical optimism.
The two main events incorporated into the story are the Seven Years' War and the Lisbon earthquake (Novel Guide 1; Porterfield 83)initiativeblog.com